Cataract is a lenticular opacity. Lens is a natural lens refracting light beams. It is located in the interval between crystalline humor of eye and iris. The lens of young people is transparent, elastic, well changes its shape under the influence of the muscles stretching it.
In the presence of a cataract the lens grows turbid partially or completely, the small part of light beams gets to an eye, image sharpness decreases. As years go by the illness progresses, vision worsens. Without well-timed treatment the cataract causes blindness. The main method of diagnostics of cataract is an examination of an eye grounds.
The cataract is met in patients of any age. There is a congenital cataract, radial, traumatic, medicinal, caused by the general diseases (avitaminosis, diabetes mellitus), illnesses of eyes (glaucoma, severe short-sightedness), smoking, poisonings (naphthalene, mercury, thallium, and ergot). But the most widespread is an age-related cataract (senile) developing after 50 years.
Patient with cataract feels a flicker of strips and spots behind the eyes, photophobia, doubling vision. There are difficulties when reading, doing fine work. The pupil in process of “maturing” of a cataract from black becomes white.
Cataract is treated by means of ultrasound destruction with the subsequent implantation of artificial lens to the place of lens. Local drop anesthesia is well tolerated by patients, it doesn’t overload heart.
It is impossible to postpone the operation. At neglected cataract the inflated lens occupies a significant part of front eye chamber, breaking the liquid outflow because of what a severe complication – secondary glaucoma develops.