Glaucoma is a chronic illness at which ocular tension increases. If not to decrease it in time, the optic nerve perishes and there is an irreversible blindness. Glaucoma develops imperceptibly, but can lead to full loss of vision.
Generally people beyond 40 years old suffer from glaucoma, but young people are also not secured against it (juvenile glaucoma), there is also a congenital glaucoma. The ocular tension increases at disturbance of intraocular liquid circulation.
Primary glaucoma is met more often than other forms. It appears in people seeming healthy without obvious reasons. From risk factors it should be noted: myopia, heredity, hypotension, diabetes mellitus, age beyond 60 years, illnesses of thyroid gland.
Secondary glaucoma is a consequence of previous disease of eyes. Inflammatory diseases of eyes, shift of lens, cataract, concussions, burns and eye injuries, surgeries, tumors of eyes may be the cause.
Congenital glaucoma is caused by anomalies of embryo development.
There are benign eye hypertensions – non-glaucoma rising of ocular tension. Optic nerve is not affected at it. The hypertensions of eye are caused by local or general diseases, intoxications, endocrine disturbances, reception of high doses of hormones.
At glaucoma the liquid circuit in a sick eye is broken, it accumulates and pressure starts growing in the eye. The eyeball presses on opening into orbit of an optic nerve, blasting it. The patient sees worse. If the optic nerve perishes, the patient completely loses his sight. At glaucoma there is a sudden loss of sight because of an acute attack.