Вry keratoconjunctivitis is shown by decrease of tear discharge and stability disturbance of plaintive membranula on the cornea. Pathological state is caused with insufficient tear formation or its accelerated evaporation.
Dry keratoconjunctivitis with insufficient tear production can arise because of scarring of tear ducts (pemphigoid, trachoma), damage resulted from immune reaction”transplant against the owner “as a consequence of radiation therapy.
Abnormally fast tear evaporation happens at pathological structure of fats (malfunction of sebaceous glands) or decrease of a normal fatty layer of tear membranula (at seborrhea blepharitis).
Symptoms of dry keratoconjunctivitis are: itch, burning sensation, irritation, feeling of foreign matter, heaviness in the eye, photophobia. There can be misting of vision. After irritation there is a strong lacrimation. Symptoms change their intensity, interrupt, intensifying at long strain of vision, at dryness of air or existence of smoke in it. Symptoms decrease in foggy, rainy and cold days.
At all forms of illness the conjunctiva is reddened. Because of the irritation patient often and strenuously blinks. At tears deficiency the conjunctiva looks dry, dim, folded. There is a Shirmer’s test for definition whether production of tears is normal.
At any form of a dry keratoconjunctivitis use of tear substitutes is effective. Viscid substitutes cover the surface of eye longer and are useful at evaporation keratoconjunctivitis (with excessive evaporation). The ointments containing an artificial tear are applied. They are imposed for the night. It is important not to smoke, avoid passive smoking.